Retrospective database analysis of 64,781 hospitalized patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with vitamin C or vitamin D (authors do not distinguish between the two), and higher mortality with zinc and HCQ, statistically significant for zinc. Authors excluded hospital-based outpatient visits, without explanation. Confounding by indication
is likely, adjustments do not appear to include any information on COVID-19 severity at baseline.
risk of death, 16.0% higher, OR 1.16, p = 0.003, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
confounding by indication
is likely and adjustments do not consider COVID-19 severity at baseline.
Rosenthal et al., 12/10/2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.