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Zinc COVID-19 studies. Recently added: Patel Gordon Abdulateef. Zinc has been officially adopted for early treatment in all or part of 3 countries. Submit updates/corrections.
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Jan 18
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Zinc for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 23 studies
Details   • Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality and hospitalization. 10 studies from 6 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (7 for the most serious outcome). • Meta analysis using ..
Dec 13
PrEPPEP Gordon et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.756707 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓67.6%, p=0.48
A Case-Control Study for the Effectiveness of Oral Zinc in the Prevention and Mitigation of COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of zinc supplementation with 104 patients randomized to receive 10mg, 25mg, or 50mg of zinc picolinate daily, and a matched sample of 96 control patients from the adjacent clinic that did not routinely recommend/use zinc..
Oct 25
Late Leal et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3949424 (Preprint)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.03
Effect of a Nutritional Support System to Increase Survival and Reduce Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Stage III and Comorbidities: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Details   80 patient RCT with 40 patients treated with a comprehensive regimen of nutritional support, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. Treatment contained cholecalciferol, vitamin C, zinc, spirulina maxima, folic acid, glutam..
Oct 12
PrEP, Early Worcel et al., Annals of Palliative Medicine, doi:10.21037/apm-21-1707 (Peer Reviewed) Low mortality from COVID-19 at a nursing facility in France following a combined preventive and active treatment protocol
Details   Report on the relatively low mortality and relatively mild COVID-19 symptoms at a French nursing facility that has adopted several treatments including vitamin D, zinc, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, and a multivitamin.
Oct 11
Early Majeed et al., Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, doi:10.1155/2021/8447545 (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓66.2%, p=1.00
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of a Nutritional Supplement (ImmuActive) for COVID-19 Patients
Details   RCT 100 patients in India, 50 treated with ImmuActive (curcumin, andrographolides, resveratrol, zinc, selenium, and piperine), showing improved recovery with treatment.
Oct 1
Late Kaplan et al., SSRN, 10.2139/ssrn.3934228 (Preprint)
ventilation, ↑14.3%, p=1.00
Resveratrol and Zinc in the Treatment of Outpatients With COVID-19 – The Reszinate Study - A Phase 1/2 Randomized Clinical Trial Utilizing Home Patient-Obtained Nasal and Saliva Viral Sampling
Details   Small RCT of zinc plus resveratrol in COVID-19+ outpatients, not showing significant differences in viral clearance or symptoms. There was a non- statistically significant trend toward more rapid decrease in symptoms in the treatment grou..
Sep 22
Levels Laing et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103304 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓79.0%, p=0.01
Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission
Details   Retrospective 79 hospitalized patients in Belgium, showing mortality associated with zinc and selenium deficiency.
Sep 17
Levels Singh et al., Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.699389 (Peer Reviewed) Nutritional Immunity, Zinc Sufficiency, and COVID-19 Mortality in Socially Similar European Populations
Details   Analysis of zinc sufficiency showing a positive correlation between sufficiency and COVID-19 within European countries. Unmeasured confounders are likely to be significant, for example the higher sufficiency countries also have significa..
Sep 3
Levels Jahromi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06617-3 (Peer Reviewed) The correlation between serum selenium, zinc, and COVID-19 severity: an observational study
Details   Prospective analysis of 84 patients in Iran, showing higher selenium and zinc levels associated with a decrease in serum CRP level. There was no statistically significant association between selenium/zinc levels and disease severity.
Sep 1
PrEPPEP Bagheri et al., Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, doi:10.18502/jfrh.v14i3.4668 (Peer Reviewed)
progression, ↓60.4%, p=0.41
Supplement Usage Pattern in a Group of COVID- 19 Patients in Tehran
Details   Retrospective 510 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severity with vitamin D (statistically significant) and zinc (not statistically significant) supplementation. IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1398.1063.
Aug 31
Late Arrieta et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111467 (Peer Reviewed) Serum zinc and copper in people with COVID-19 and zinc supplementation in parenteral nutrition
Details   Retrospective 35 COVID-19 patients on parenteral nutrition on Spain, showing serum zinc levels inversely associated with length of hospital stay. There was no signficant association between zinc and mortality (p>0.1, actual results are no..
Aug 28
Late Assiri et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.030 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑80.8%, p=0.44
COVID-19 related treatment and outcomes among COVID-19 ICU patients: A retrospective cohort study
Details   Retrospective 118 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant differences in unadjusted results with zinc, vitamin D, and favipiravir treatment.
Aug 26
Levels Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (preprint 8/26/2021) (Peer Reviewed) The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..
Aug 25
Levels Pour et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.08.053 (Peer Reviewed) Serum trace elements levels and clinical outcomes among Iranian COVID‐19 patients
Details   Prospective analysis of 114 ICU patients and 112 matched non-ICU patients in Iran, showing mortality associated with lower zinc levels. There was no significant difference in zinc levels between ICU and non-ICU patients. IR.TBZMED.REC.139..
Aug 18
Levels Shakeri et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27277 (Peer Reviewed) Evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 293 hospitalized patients in Iran showing lower levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D in patients that died, with statistical significance reached only for zinc.
Aug 17
Late Capone et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.9809 (Peer Reviewed) Characterization of Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients at a Brooklyn Safety-Net Hospital
Details   Retrospective 102 ICU patients in the USA, 73 receiving vitamin C and zinc, showing a negative correlation of treatment with mortality, but not reaching statistical significance (p = 0.31).
Aug 12
Late Elavarasi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.08.10.21261855 (Preprint)
death, ↓65.1%, p<0.0001
Clinical features, demography and predictors of outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a tertiary care hospital in India - a cohort study
Details   Retrospective 2017 hospitalized patients in India, showing lower mortality with zinc treatment.
Jul 27
PrEPPEP Israel et al., Epidemiology and Global Health Microbiology and Infectious Disease, doi:10.7554/eLife.68165 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓>99.9%, p=0.04
Identification of drugs associated with reduced severity of COVID-19: A case-control study in a large population
Details   Case control study examining medication usage with a healthcare database in Israel, showing lower risk of hospitalization with calcium + zinc supplements (defined as being picked up within 35 days prior to PCR+), however only 10 patients ..
Jul 9
Early Rabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 (Peer Reviewed) Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, Pakistan
Details   Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation.
Jul 6
PrEPPEP Margolin et al., Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1177/2515690X211026193 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓94.4%, p=0.003
20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment
Details   Retrospective 113 outpatients, 53 (patient choice) treated with zinc, quercetin, vitamin C/D/E, l-lysine, and quina, showing lower cases with treatment. Results are subject to selection bias and limited information on the groups is provid..
Jun 24
Levels Beigmohammadi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111400 (Peer Reviewed) The association between serum levels of micronutrients and the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 60 ICU patients in Iran, showing that lower levels of vitamin D, magnesium, and zinc were significantly associated with higher APACHE scores (P = 0.001, 0.028, and <0.001, respectively) and higher lung involvement (P = 0.002..
Jun 20
Late Notz et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13062113 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical Significance of Micronutrient Supplementation in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients with Severe ARDS
Details   Retrospective 22 ICU patients, showing most patients had low selenium status biomarkers and low zinc levels, and reporting on treatment with nutrient supplementation including selenium and zinc. Authors conclude that sufficient selenium a..
Jun 15
In Vitro Panchariya et al., Chemical Communications, doi:10.1039/D1CC03563K (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Zinc2+ ion inhibits SARS-CoV-2 main protease and viral replication in vitro
Details   In Silico and In Vitro study showing that ionic zinc inhibits SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) and inhibits viral replication. Zinc acetate inhibited viral replication in Vero E6 cells, while zinc glycinate and zinc gluconate did not at n..
Jun 12
Levels Verschelden et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.09.21258271 (Preprint) Plasma zinc status and hyperinflammatory syndrome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: an observational study
Details   Prospective study of 139 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing 96% had zinc deficiency. Higher zinc levels were associated with a shorter length of hospitalization. Mortality and ventilation was lower with higher zinc levels, but not re..
Jun 7
Late Al Sulaiman et al., Critical Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03785-1 (preprint 6/7/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓36.0%, p=0.11
Evaluation of Zinc Sulfate as an Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19 Critically Ill Patients: a Two Center Propensity-score Matched Study
Details   Retrospective 266 ICU patients showing lower mortality with zinc treatment (very close to statistical significance), and higher odds of acute kidney injury. NRC21R/287/07.
May 22
Early Asimi et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.73.PEP14.2 (Preprint)
ventilation, ↓97.4%, p<0.0001
Selenium, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation affect the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Details   Retrospective 356 Hashimoto's thyroiditis outpatients, 270 taking vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment. Authors adjust for age, gender, BMI, and smoking status, reporting statistically ..
May 3
Levels Fromonot et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.042 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓89.2%, p=0.002
Hypozincemia in the early stage of COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19
Details   Analysis of 240 consecutive patients in France, showing significantly higher zinc deficiency in COVID-19 patients, and significantly greater risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 patients with zinc deficiency. 2020PI087.
Apr 18
Levels Elham et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.03.040 (Peer Reviewed) Serum vitamin D, calcium, and zinc levels in patients with COVID-19
Details   Case control study with 93 hospitalized patients in Iran and 186 control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D, zinc, and calcium levels in cases. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.017.
Apr 15
Levels Skalny et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11040244 (Peer Reviewed) Serum Zinc, Copper, and Other Biometals Are Associated with COVID-19 Severity Markers
Details   Analysis of serum metal levels in 150 COVID-19 patients and 44 controls, finding that COVID-19 severity was associated with lower serum Ca, Fe, Se, Zn levels when compared to controls.
Apr 14
PrEPPEP Seet et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.035 (Peer Reviewed)
symp. case, ↓49.7%, p=0.0007
Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: an open-label randomized trial
Details   Prophylaxis RCT in Singapore with 3,037 low risk patients, showing lower serious cases, lower symptomatic cases, and lower confirmed cases of COVID-19 with all treatments (ivermectin, HCQ, PVP-I, and Zinc + vitamin C) compared to vitamin ..
Apr 8
PrEPPEP Abdulateef et al., Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓13.1%, p=0.83
COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use
Details   Survey of 428 recovered COVID-19 patients in Iraq, showing fewer hospital visits for patients on prophylactic vitamin C or D. Hospitalization was lower for those on vitamin C, D, or zinc, without statistical significance.
Apr 8
Late Gadhiya et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042549 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑40.9%, p=0.33
Clinical characteristics of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and the impact on mortality: a single-network, retrospective cohort study from Pennsylvania state
Details   Retrospective 283 patients in the USA showing higher mortality with all treatments (not statistically significant). Confounding by indication is likely. In the supplementary appendix, authors note that the treatments were usually given fo..
Apr 7
Late Mulhem et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042042 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓45.6%, p<0.0001
3219 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in Southeast Michigan: a retrospective case cohort study
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 3,219 hospitalized patients in the USA. Very different results in the time period analysis (Table S2), and results significantly different to other studies for the same medications (e.g., heparin OR 3.06..
Mar 30
PrEPPEP Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓6.8%, p=0.77
Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Details   Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Feb 25
Late Patel et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26895 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓20.0%, p=1.00
A pilot double‐blind safety and feasibility randomized controlled trial of high‐dose intravenous zinc in hospitalized COVID‐19 patients
Details   Small early terminated RCT with 33 hospitalized patients in Australia, 15 treated with zinc, showing no significant difference in clinical outcomes. Treatment increased zinc levels above the deficiency cutoff. Intravenous zinc 0.5mg/kg/da..
Feb 13
Levels Dubourg et al., Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2021.01.012 (Peer Reviewed) Low blood zinc concentrations in patients with poor clinical outcome during SARS-CoV-2 infection: is there a need to supplement with Zinc COVID-19 patients?
Details   Retrospective 275 patients showing zinc levels significantly lower in patients with poor outcomes, 840 vs. 970 µg/L, p< 0.0001.
Feb 12
Early Thomas et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↑43.7%, p=0.72
Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Small 214 low-risk outpatient RCT showing non-statistically significant faster recovery with zinc and with vitamin C. Study performed in the USA where zinc deficiency is relatively uncommon. The zinc dosage is relatively low, 50mg zinc gl..
Feb 1
Levels Muhammad et al., SAGE Open Medicine, doi:10.1177/2050312121991246 (Peer Reviewed) Deficiency of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional comparative study in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria
Details   Case control study with 50 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy controls in Nigeria, showing that COVID-19 patients had significantly lower levels of selenium and zinc, and vitamins A, C, and E. Control patients were younger than ..
Jan 7
Early Abdelmaksoud et al., Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02546-5 (Peer Reviewed) Olfactory Disturbances as Presenting Manifestation Among Egyptian Patients with COVID-19: Possible Role of Zinc
Details   134 COVID-19 patients, 49 treated with zinc, showing faster recovery of olfactory function in patients treated with zinc (median 7 vs. 18 days). There was no difference in overall recovery time. There were 4 deaths but authors do not indi..
Jan 7
Review Sethuram et al., Reproductive Sciences, doi:10.1007/s43032-020-00400-6 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Potential Role of Zinc in the COVID-19 Disease Process and its Probable Impact on Reproduction
Details   Review of zinc deficiency and supplementation for COVID-19, including potential impacts on reproductive health.
Jan 4
Review Joachimiak et al., PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008895 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and deficiency risk groups
Details   Literature review concluding that zinc should be included as part of preventative supplementation for COVID-19, in general for support of immune health, and should also be considered in the context of zinc deficiency acquired during a vir..
Dec 30
Review McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Details   Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Dec 23
Levels Gonçalves et al., Nutrition in Clinical Practice, doi:10.1002/ncp.10612 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓82.3%, p<0.001
Association Between Low Zinc Levels and Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome by New Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
Details   Retrospective 169 ICU patients in Brazil, 214 with low zinc levels, showing an association between low zinc levels and severe ARDS. CAAE 30608,020.9.0000.8114.
Dec 15
Late Darban et al., Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia, doi:10.22037/jcma.v6i2.32182 (Peer Reviewed)
progression, ↓33.3%, p=1.00
Efficacy of High Dose Vitamin C, Melatonin and Zinc in Iranian Patients with Acute Respiratory Syndrome due to Coronavirus Infection: A Pilot Randomized Trial
Details   Small RCT in Iran with 20 ICU patients, 10 treated with high-dose vitamin C, melatonin, and zinc, not showing significant differences. IRCT20151228025732N52.
Nov 30
PrEPPEP Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 (preprint 11/30/20) (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓0.9%, p=0.80
Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app
Details   Survey analysis of dietary supplements showing no significant difference in PCR+ cases with zinc usage. These results are for PCR+ cases only, they do not reflect potential benefits for reducing the severity of cases. A number of biases c..
Nov 29
Late Abd-Elsalam et al., Biological Trace Element Research, doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02512-1 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓1.0%, p=0.99
Do Zinc Supplements Enhance the Clinical Efficacy of Hydroxychloroquine?: a Randomized, Multicenter Trial
Details   191 patient RCT in Egypt comparing the addition of zinc to HCQ, not showing a significant difference. No information on baseline zinc values was recorded. We note that Egypt has a low rate of zinc deficiency so supplementation is less lik..
Nov 18
In Silico Pormohammad et al., International Journal of Molecular Medicine, doi:10.3892/ijmm.2020.4790 (Peer Reviewed)
In Silico
Zinc and SARS‑CoV‑2: A molecular modeling study of Zn interactions with RNA‑dependent RNA‑polymerase and 3C‑like proteinase enzymes
Details   In Silico analysis supporting the hypothesis that Zn would bind and regulate the enzymatic activities of 3CLpro and RdRp of SARS‑CoV-2 and therefore inhibit viral replication. Since Zn has established immune health benefits, is readily av..
Oct 26
Late Frontera et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint)
death, ↓37.0%, p=0.01
Treatment with Zinc is Associated with Reduced In-Hospital Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Center Cohort Study
Details   Retrospective 3,473 hospitalized patients showing 37% lower mortality with HCQ+zinc. PSM aHR 0.63, p=0.015 regression aHR 0.76, p = 0.023
Oct 26
Levels Tomasa-Irriguible et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11090565 (preprint 10/26/2020) (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓49.3%, p=0.06
Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19 Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First Wave
Details   Retrospective 120 hospitalized patients in Spain showing zinc deficiency associated with higher ICU admission.
Oct 20
PrEPPEP Heller et al., Redox Biology, doi:10.1016/j.redox.2020.101764 (Peer Reviewed) Prediction of Survival Odds in COVID-19 by Zinc, Age and Selenoprotein P as Composite Biomarker
Details   Analysis of 35 COVID-19 patients showing a significant correlation for serum zinc levels between COVID-19 patients and controls, and between COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors.
Oct 11
Levels Vogel-González et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020562 (preprint 10/11/2020) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓77.2%, p=0.0005
Low Zinc Levels at Admission Associates with Poor Clinical Outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Details   Retrospective 249 PCR+ hospitalized patients in Spain, 58 with zinc levels on admission <50 μg/dL, showing higher mortality and ICU admission, and slower recovery with low zinc levels.
Sep 10
Levels Jothimani (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓89.7%, p=0.06
COVID-19: Poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency
Details   Prospective study of zinc levels in 47 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls. COVID-19 patients had significantly lower zinc levels (74.5 vs. 105.8 median μg/dl, p < 0.001). 57.4% of COVID-19 patients were zinc deficient,..
Sep 7
Levels Yasui et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.008 (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓92.5%, p=0.001
Analysis of the predictive factors for a critical illness of COVID-19 during treatment - relationship between serum zinc level and critical illness of COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 62 hospitalized patients, 29 with serum zinc data, showing significantly lower serum zinc levels for severe COVID-19 cases (intubation) compared with mild and moderate cases, p = 0.005. Authors recommend zinc supplementation.
Jul 22
Late Yao et al., Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.082 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓34.0%, p=0.09
The Minimal Effect of Zinc on the Survival of Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 242 hospitalized patients in the USA showing adjusted hazard ratio for zinc treatment, aHR 0.66 [0.41-1.07]. [1] notes that the study would be more informative if baseline serum zinc levels were known.
Jul 20
Late Krishnan et al., J Clin Anesth., doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.110005 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓17.6%, p=0.18
Clinical comorbidities, characteristics, and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients in the State of Michigan with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
Details   Retrospective 152 mechanically ventilated patients in the USA showing unadjusted lower mortality with vitamin C, vitamin D, HCQ, and zinc treatment, statistically significant only for vitamin C.
Jul 3
Early Derwand et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106214 (preprint 7/3) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓79.4%, p=0.12
COVID-19 Outpatients – Early Risk-Stratified Treatment with Zinc Plus Low Dose Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Case Series Study
Details   79% lower mortality and 82% lower hospitalization with early HCQ+AZ+Z. Retrospective 518 patients (141 treated, 377 control).
Jun 6
Late Finzi et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.006 (Peer Reviewed) Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 with high dose oral zinc salts: A report on four patients
Details   Case report on 4 patients treated with high dose zinc. All patients experienced significant improvement after one day.
May 8
Late Carlucci et al., J. Med. Microbiol., Sep 15, 2020, doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001250 (preprint 5/8) (Peer Reviewed)
death/HPC, ↓37.7%, p=0.002
Zinc sulfate in combination with a zinc ionophore may improve outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 932 patients showing that the addition of zinc to HCQ+AZ reduced mortality / transfer to hospice, ICU admission, and the need for ventilation.
In Vitro te Velthuis et al., PLOS Pathogens 2010, 6:11, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture
Details   Shows that the combination of Zn2+ and a zinc ionophore (pyrithione) at low concentrations inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV and equine arteritis virus (EAV) in cell culture. Recommends further study of the use of zinc-ionophores as an..
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