COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D HC QHC Q Vitamin CV.C ZincZn BHBH FPVFPV FLVFLV PVP-IPI REGNR2 LY-CoVLY RMDRMD
  @CovidAnalysis[0.03-1.47]death518RRCINThomas (RCT)0.88[0.39-1.99]recovery108Tau​2 = 0.44; I​2 = 41.3%Early treatment0.58[0.16-2.11]626 42% improvementYasui0.07[0.01-0.54]ventilation29RRCINJothimani0.10[0.01-1.76]death47Berrocal0.55[0.23-1.31]death120Tau​2 = 0.88; I​2 = 51.6%Sufficiency0.22[0.05-0.96]196 78% improvementCarlucci0.62[0.45-0.86]death/hospice932RRCINFrontera0.63[0.44-0.91]death3,473Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Late treatment0.63[0.53-0.74]4,405 37% improvementAll studies0.60[0.46-0.77]5,227 40% improvementAll 7 zinc COVID-19 studiesTau​2 = 0.03; I​2 = 24.2%; Z = 3.97 (p < 0.0001)Lower RiskIncreased Risk
Levels Dubourg et al., Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2021.01.012 (Peer Reviewed) Low blood zinc concentrations in patients with poor clinical outcome during SARS-CoV-2 infection: is there a need to supplement with Zinc COVID-19 patients?
Retrospective 275 patients showing zinc levels significantly lower in patients with poor outcomes, 840 vs. 970 µg/L, p< 0.0001.
Early Thomas et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369 (Peer Reviewed) recov. time, ↓11.9%, p=0.38 Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial
Small 214 low-risk outpatient RCT showing non-statistically significant faster recovery with zinc and with vitamin C. The zinc dosage appears low, 50mg zinc glcuonate (7mg elemental zinc). Study performed in the USA where zinc deficiency ..
Review McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Late Frontera et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) death, ↓37.0%, p=0.01 Treatment with Zinc is Associated with Reduced In-Hospital Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Center Cohort Study
Retrospective 3,473 hospitalized patients showing 37% lower mortality with HCQ+zinc. PSM aHR 0.63, p=0.015 regression aHR 0.76, p = 0.023
Levels Berrocal et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) death, ↓44.8%, p=0.23 Zinc and Vitamin A Deficiency Predisposes to the Need for Intubation and ICU Admission in Patients With COVID-19. An Observational Study
Retrospective 120 hospitalized patients showing zinc deficiency associated with a higher ICU admission rate (61.8% vs.29%; p = 0.002) and a higher rate of intubation (87.5% vs. 12.5%; p = 0.002).
Early Derwand et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106214 (preprint 7/3) (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓79.4%, p=0.12 COVID-19 Outpatients – Early Risk-Stratified Treatment with Zinc Plus Low Dose Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Case Series Study
79% lower mortality and 82% lower hospitalization with early HCQ+AZ+Z. Retrospective 518 patients (141 treated, 377 control).
PrEP Heller et al., Redox Biology, doi:10.1016/j.redox.2020.101764 (Peer Reviewed) Prediction of Survival Odds in COVID-19 by Zinc, Age and Selenoprotein P as Composite Biomarker
Analysis of 35 COVID-19 patients showing a significant correlation for serum zinc levels between COVID-19 patients and controls, and between COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors.
Late Vogel-González et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.07.20208645 (Preprint) Low zinc levels at clinical admission associates with poor outcomes in COVID-19
Shows a correlation between serum zinc levels and COVID-19 outcome. Almost all patients received HCQ.
Levels Jothimani (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓89.7%, p=0.06 COVID-19: Poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency
Prospective study of zinc levels in 47 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls. COVID-19 patients had significantly lower zinc levels (74.5 vs. 105.8 median μg/dl, p < 0.001). 57.4% of COVID-19 patients were zinc deficient,..
Levels Yasui et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.008 (Peer Reviewed) ventilation, ↓92.5%, p=0.001 Analysis of the predictive factors for a critical illness of COVID-19 during treatment - relationship between serum zinc level and critical illness of COVID-19
Retrospective 62 hospitalized patients, 29 with serum zinc data, showing significantly lower serum zinc levels for severe COVID-19 cases (intubation) compared with mild and moderate cases, p = 0.005. Authors recommend zinc supplementation.
Late Carlucci et al., J. Med. Microbiol., Sep 15, 2020, doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001250 (preprint 5/8) (Peer Reviewed) death/hospice, ↓37.8%, p=0.002 Zinc sulfate in combination with a zinc ionophore may improve outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Retrospective 932 patients. Addition of Zinc to HCQ+AZ reduces mortality / transfer to hospice, ICU admission, and the need for ventilation. Reduction in mortality or transfer to hospice adjusted odds ratio OR 0.56, p = 0.002; increase i..
In Vitro te Velthuis et al., PLOS Pathogens 2010, 6:11, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture
Shows that the combination of Zn2+ and a zinc ionophore (pyrithione) at low concentrations inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV and equine arteritis virus (EAV) in cell culture. Recommends further study of the use of zinc-ionophores as an..
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