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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Zinc  COVID-19 treatment studies for Zinc  C19 studies: Zinc  Zinc   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Melatonin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 zinc studies
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 48% 20 50,281 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk, 95% CI With exclusions 53% 13 10,067 Mortality 39% 10 10,416 Ventilation 54% 4 1,658 ICU admission 36% 4 1,562 Hospitalization 66% 8 22,888 Progression 44% 2 530 Recovery 32% 2 548 Cases 17% 3 16,720 RCTs 41% 5 1,602 Peer-reviewed 49% 15 29,508 Prophylaxis 58% 5 37,849 Early 74% 3 982 Late 32% 12 10,511 Zinc for COVID-19 c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 Favors zinc Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] death 1/141 13/377 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Asimi 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] ventilation 0/270 9/86 CT​2 Tau​2 = 2.68; I​2 = 72.0% Early treatment 74% 0.26 [0.03-2.33] 6/469 25/513 74% improvement Carlucci 38% 0.62 [0.46-0.84] death/HPC 54/411 119/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] death 31/58 61/94 Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] death 73/196 21/46 Frontera (PSM) 37% 0.63 [0.44-0.91] death 121/1,006 424/2,467 CT​2 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 CT​2 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] death 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] death 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] death 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] death 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] death 10/60 4/58 Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] ventilation 1/14 1/16 CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.05; I​2 = 64.0% Late treatment 32% 0.68 [0.56-0.82] 597/4,069 964/6,442 32% improvement Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 7% 0.93 [0.59-1.44] cases 21/750 425/14,477 Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] severe case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Israel 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.93] hosp. 0/10 6,953/20,849 CT​2 Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] progression 33 (n) 477 (n) Tau​2 = 0.54; I​2 = 92.2% Prophylaxis 58% 0.42 [0.19-0.92] 54/1,427 7,442/36,422 58% improvement Yasui 92% 0.07 [0.01-0.54] ventilation 1/20 6/9 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Jothimani 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.76] death 0/20 5/27 Vogel-González 77% 0.23 [0.10-0.51] death 9/191 12/58 Tomasa-Irriguible 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.02] ventilation 7/31 49/89 Gonçalves 82% 0.18 [0.08-0.36] severe case 7/55 145/214 Fromonot 89% 0.11 [0.02-0.48] hosp. 6/110 7/42 Laing 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.74] death 3/49 7/24 Tau​2 = 0.15; I​2 = 36.2% Sufficiency 79% 0.21 [0.13-0.35] 33/476 231/463 79% improvement All studies 48% 0.52 [0.41-0.66] 690/6,441 8,662/43,840 48% improvement 27 zinc COVID-19 studies c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.21; I​2 = 87.1%; Z = 5.38 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] death 1/141 13/377 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Tau​2 = 1.11; I​2 = 58.6% Early treatment 37% 0.63 [0.10-4.14] 6/199 16/427 37% improvement Carlucci 38% 0.62 [0.46-0.84] death/HPC 54/411 119/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] death 73/196 21/46 Frontera (PSM) 37% 0.63 [0.44-0.91] death 121/1,006 424/2,467 CT​2 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 CT​2 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] death 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] death 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] ventilation 1/14 1/16 CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 10.7% Late treatment 40% 0.60 [0.52-0.70] 279/2,301 605/4,438 40% improvement Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] severe case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] progression 33 (n) 477 (n) Tau​2 = 0.19; I​2 = 82.0% Prophylaxis 30% 0.70 [0.38-1.29] 33/667 64/1,096 30% improvement Yasui 92% 0.07 [0.01-0.54] ventilation 1/20 6/9 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Jothimani 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.76] death 0/20 5/27 Vogel-González 77% 0.23 [0.10-0.51] death 9/191 12/58 Tomasa-Irriguible 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.02] ventilation 7/31 49/89 Gonçalves 82% 0.18 [0.08-0.36] severe case 7/55 145/214 Fromonot 89% 0.11 [0.02-0.48] hosp. 6/110 7/42 Laing 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.74] death 3/49 7/24 Tau​2 = 0.15; I​2 = 36.2% Sufficiency 79% 0.21 [0.13-0.35] 33/476 231/463 79% improvement All studies 53% 0.47 [0.35-0.62] 351/3,643 916/6,424 53% improvement 20 zinc COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.22; I​2 = 84.6%; Z = 5.31 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] 1/141 13/377 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] 1/141 13/377 79% improvement Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] 31/58 61/94 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] 73/196 21/46 Frontera (PSM) 37% 0.63 [0.44-0.91] 121/1,006 424/2,467 CT​1 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] 5/96 5/95 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] 10/60 4/58 Tau​2 = 0.07; I​2 = 73.6% Late treatment 31% 0.69 [0.55-0.87] 540/3,634 841/5,895 31% improvement Jothimani 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.76] 0/20 5/27 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Vogel-González 77% 0.23 [0.10-0.51] 9/191 12/58 Laing 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.74] 3/49 7/24 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Sufficiency 79% 0.21 [0.11-0.41] 12/260 24/109 79% improvement All studies 39% 0.61 [0.49-0.78] 553/4,035 878/6,381 39% improvement 13 zinc COVID-19 mortality results c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.09; I​2 = 71.2%; Z = 4.04 Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Asimi 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] 0/270 9/86 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] 0/270 9/86 97% improvement Carlucci 18% 0.82 [0.54-1.25] 29/411 62/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 34% 0.66 [0.19-2.26] 4/96 6/95 Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] 1/14 1/16 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 19% 0.81 [0.54-1.20] 34/521 69/632 19% improvement Yasui 92% 0.07 [0.01-0.54] 1/20 6/9 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tomasa-Irriguible 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.02] 7/31 49/89 Tau​2 = 1.26; I​2 = 69.2% Sufficiency 75% 0.25 [0.04-1.51] 8/51 55/98 75% improvement All studies 54% 0.46 [0.23-0.94] 42/842 133/816 54% improvement 6 zinc COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.34; I​2 = 56.2%; Z = 2.13 Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Carlucci 23% 0.77 [0.53-1.10] 38/411 82/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Darban (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.84-1.06] 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​1 Al Sulaiman (PSM) -25% 1.25 [0.84-1.87] 82 (n) 82 (n) Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] 1/14 1/16 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 5.9% Late treatment 6% 0.94 [0.83-1.07] 39/517 83/629 6% improvement Jothimani 92% 0.08 [0.00-1.26] 0/20 7/27 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Vogel-González 71% 0.29 [0.20-0.41] 34/191 36/58 Tomasa-Irriguible 52% 0.48 [0.20-0.91] 9/31 55/89 Tau​2 = 0.07; I​2 = 38.4% Sufficiency 66% 0.34 [0.21-0.55] 43/242 98/174 66% improvement All studies 36% 0.64 [0.40-1.02] 82/759 181/803 36% improvement 7 zinc COVID-19 ICU results c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.26; I​2 = 87.3%; Z = 1.86 Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 82% 0.18 [0.07-0.54] hosp. 4/141 58/377 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Asimi 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.16] hosp. 0/270 24/86 CT​1 Tau​2 = 2.85; I​2 = 82.7% Early treatment 81% 0.19 [0.02-1.62] 9/469 85/513 81% improvement Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.86-1.08] hosp. time 96 (n) 95 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Al Sulaiman (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.85-1.33] hosp. time 82 (n) 82 (n) Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] hosp. 1/14 1/16 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 2% 0.98 [0.89-1.09] 1/192 1/193 2% improvement Israel 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.93] hosp. 0/10 6,953/20,849 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Bagheri 41% 0.59 [0.14-1.61] hosp. 4/33 167/477 Tau​2 = 33.19; I​2 = 96.9% Prophylaxis 99% 0.01 [0.00-34.6] 4/43 7,120/21,326 99% improvement Fromonot 89% 0.11 [0.02-0.48] hosp. 6/110 7/42 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Sufficiency 89% 0.11 [0.02-0.48] 6/110 7/42 89% improvement All studies 66% 0.34 [0.19-0.64] 20/814 7,213/22,074 66% improvement 9 zinc COVID-19 hospitalization results c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.50; I​2 = 90.0%; Z = 3.40 Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] death 1/141 13/377 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Asimi 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] ventilation 0/270 9/86 CT​2 Tau​2 = 2.68; I​2 = 72.0% Early treatment 74% 0.26 [0.03-2.33] 6/469 25/513 74% improvement Carlucci 38% 0.62 [0.46-0.84] death/HPC 54/411 119/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] death 31/58 61/94 Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] death 73/196 21/46 Frontera (PSM) 37% 0.63 [0.44-0.91] death 121/1,006 424/2,467 CT​2 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 CT​2 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] death 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] death 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] death 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] death 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] death 10/60 4/58 Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] ventilation 1/14 1/16 CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.05; I​2 = 64.0% Late treatment 32% 0.68 [0.56-0.82] 597/4,069 964/6,442 32% improvement Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] severe case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Israel 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.93] hosp. 0/10 6,953/20,849 CT​2 Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] progression 33 (n) 477 (n) Tau​2 = 12.27; I​2 = 94.1% Prophylaxis 96% 0.04 [0.00-2.28] 33/677 7,017/21,945 96% improvement Yasui 92% 0.07 [0.01-0.54] ventilation 1/20 6/9 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Jothimani 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.76] death 0/20 5/27 Vogel-González 77% 0.23 [0.10-0.51] death 9/191 12/58 Tomasa-Irriguible 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.02] ventilation 7/31 49/89 Gonçalves 82% 0.18 [0.08-0.36] severe case 7/55 145/214 Fromonot 89% 0.11 [0.02-0.48] hosp. 6/110 7/42 Laing 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.74] death 3/49 7/24 Tau​2 = 0.15; I​2 = 36.2% Sufficiency 79% 0.21 [0.13-0.35] 33/476 231/463 79% improvement All studies 52% 0.48 [0.37-0.61] 669/5,691 8,237/29,363 52% improvement 25 zinc COVID-19 serious outcomes c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.21; I​2 = 78.5%; Z = 5.76 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Thomas (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.67-1.16] recov. time 58 (n) 50 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 12% 0.88 [0.67-1.16] 0/58 0/50 12% improvement Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.55-1.62] no recov. 20/96 21/95 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 6% 0.94 [0.55-1.62] 20/96 21/95 6% improvement Vogel-González 68% 0.32 [0.16-0.63] recov. time 191 (n) 58 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Sufficiency 68% 0.32 [0.16-0.63] 0/191 0/58 68% improvement All studies 32% 0.68 [0.39-1.19] 20/345 21/203 32% improvement 3 zinc COVID-19 recovery results c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.18; I​2 = 74.5%; Z = 1.34 Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 7% 0.93 [0.59-1.44] 21/750 425/14,477 Seet (CLUS. RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.41-1.05] 300/634 433/619 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.04; I​2 = 92.0% Prophylaxis 13% 0.87 [0.67-1.12] 321/1,384 858/15,096 13% improvement Fromonot 28% 0.72 [0.61-0.87] 110/188 42/52 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Sufficiency 28% 0.72 [0.61-0.87] 110/188 42/52 28% improvement All studies 17% 0.83 [0.67-1.02] 431/1,572 900/15,148 17% improvement 4 zinc COVID-19 case results c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 OT: comparison with other treatmentTau​2 = 0.04; I​2 = 90.0%; Z = 1.76 Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Yasui 92% 0.07 [0.01-0.54] ventilation 1/20 6/9 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Jothimani 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.76] death 0/20 5/27 Vogel-González 77% 0.23 [0.10-0.51] death 9/191 12/58 Tomasa-Irriguible 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.02] ventilation 7/31 49/89 Gonçalves 82% 0.18 [0.08-0.36] severe case 7/55 145/214 Fromonot 89% 0.11 [0.02-0.48] hosp. 6/110 7/42 Laing 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.74] death 3/49 7/24 All studies 79% 0.21 [0.13-0.35] 33/476 231/463 79% improvement 7 zinc COVID-19 sufficiency studies c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.15; I​2 = 36.2%; Z = 6.21 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] 5/58 3/50 -44% improvement Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 CT​2 Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] ventilation 1/14 1/16 CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 12% 0.88 [0.36-2.17] 8/120 9/121 12% improvement Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] severe case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Prophylaxis 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] 33/634 64/619 50% improvement All studies 41% 0.59 [0.41-0.84] 46/812 76/790 41% improvement 5 zinc COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 2.90 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] 5/96 5/95 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] 5/96 5/95 1% improvement All studies 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] 5/96 5/95 1% improvement 1 zinc COVID-19 RCT mortality result c19zinc.com Dec 3, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 0.02 Favors zinc Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] death 1/141 13/377 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Tau​2 = 1.11; I​2 = 58.6% Early treatment