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Zinc
Zinc for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 23 studies
Covid Analysis, January 18, 2022, DRAFT
https://c19zinc.com/meta.html
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 33% 23 50,003 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk With exclusions 36% 15 9,361 Mortality 32% 12 10,280 Ventilation 43% 4 1,509 ICU admission 6% 4 1,146 Hospitalization 51% 9 23,164 Progression 44% 2 530 Recovery 11% 2 299 Cases 30% 4 16,680 RCTs 40% 6 1,635 RCT mortality 8% 2 224 Peer-reviewed 28% 19 44,457 Exc. combined 26% 17 24,747 Sufficiency 79% 7 939 Prophylaxis 51% 7 38,477 Early 74% 3 982 Late 32% 13 10,544 Zinc for COVID-19 c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Favors zinc Favors control
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality and hospitalization. 10 studies from 6 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (7 for the most serious outcome).
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 33% [16‑47%] improvement. Results are similar for Randomized Controlled Trials, similar after exclusions, similar for peer-reviewed studies, and slightly worse after excluding studies using combined treatment. Early treatment is more effective than late treatment.
Sufficiency studies, analyzing outcomes based on serum levels, show 79% [65‑87%] improvement for patients with higher zinc levels (7 studies).
Results are robust — in exclusion sensitivity analysis 9 of 23 studies must be excluded to avoid finding statistically significant efficacy in pooled analysis.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 33% 23 50,003 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk With exclusions 36% 15 9,361 Mortality 32% 12 10,280 Ventilation 43% 4 1,509 ICU admission 6% 4 1,146 Hospitalization 51% 9 23,164 Progression 44% 2 530 Recovery 11% 2 299 Cases 30% 4 16,680 RCTs 40% 6 1,635 RCT mortality 8% 2 224 Peer-reviewed 28% 19 44,457 Exc. combined 26% 17 24,747 Sufficiency 79% 7 939 Prophylaxis 51% 7 38,477 Early 74% 3 982 Late 32% 13 10,544 Zinc for COVID-19 c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Favors zinc Favors control
6 studies use combined treatments. When excluding those studies, the pooled improvement is 26% [8‑41%] compared to 33% [16‑47%].
Early treatment results are dominated by [Thomas], however this study used a low dose and was conducted in a location with low levels of zinc deficiency.
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 13% of zinc studies show zero events in the treatment arm.
Multiple treatments are typically used in combination, and other treatments may be more effective.
Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used, including treatments, as supported by Pfizer [Pfizer]. Denying the efficacy of treatments increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and endemic risk.
All data to reproduce this paper and sources are in the appendix.
Studies Early treatment Late treatment Prophylaxis PatientsAuthors
All studies 2374% [-133‑97%]32% [18‑44%]51% [5‑74%] 50,003 252
With exclusions 1537% [-314‑90%]40% [31‑47%]31% [-23‑62%] 9,361 170
Peer-reviewed 1937% [-314‑90%]25% [7‑40%]51% [5‑74%] 44,457 197
Randomized Controlled TrialsRCTs 6-44% [-471‑64%]14% [-90‑61%]50% [25‑66%] 1,635 68
Percentage improvement with zinc treatment
A
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] death 1/141 13/377 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Asimi 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] ventilation 0/270 9/86 CT​2 Tau​2 = 2.68, I​2 = 72.0%, p = 0.23 Early treatment 74% 0.26 [0.03-2.33] 6/469 25/513 74% improvement Carlucci 38% 0.62 [0.46-0.84] death/HPC 54/411 119/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] death 31/58 61/94 Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] death 73/196 21/46 Frontera (PSM) 37% 0.63 [0.44-0.91] death 121/1,006 424/2,467 CT​2 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 CT​2 Patel (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.15-4.18] death 2/15 3/18 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] death 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] death 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] death 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] death 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] death 10/60 4/58 Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] ventilation 1/14 1/16 CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 60.8%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 32% 0.68 [0.56-0.82] 599/4,084 967/6,460 32% improvement Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 7% 0.93 [0.59-1.44] cases 21/750 425/14,477 Abdulateef 13% 0.87 [0.38-1.97] hosp. 7/111 23/317 Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] symp. case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Israel 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.93] hosp. 0/10 6,953/20,849 CT​2 Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] progression 33 (n) 477 (n) Gordon 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.87] death 0/104 1/96 Tau​2 = 0.47, I​2 = 88.4%, p = 0.034 Prophylaxis 51% 0.49 [0.26-0.95] 61/1,642 7,466/36,835 51% improvement All studies 33% 0.67 [0.53-0.84] 666/6,195 8,458/43,808 33% improvement 23 zinc COVID-19 studies c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.16, I​2 = 84.9%, p = 0.0006 Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendix 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis. This plot shows pooled effects, discussion can be found in the heterogeneity section, and results for specific outcomes can be found in the individual outcome analyses. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. For details of effect extraction see the appendix. B. Scatter plot showing the distribution of effects reported in studies. C. History of all reported effects (chronological within treatment stages).
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of zinc for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for individual outcomes, for peer-reviewed studies, for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), and after exclusions.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Prophylaxis refers to regularly taking medication before becoming sick, in order to prevent or minimize infection. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Results
Figure 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 show forest plots for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies with pooled effects, mortality results, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, progression, recovery, cases, sufficiency studies, peer reviewed studies, and all studies excluding combined treatment studies. Table 1 summarizes the results by treatment stage.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive effects Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive effects Random effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 2 3 66.7% 74% improvement
RR 0.26 [0.03‑2.33]
p = 0.23
Late treatment 10 13 76.9% 32% improvement
RR 0.68 [0.56‑0.82]
p < 0.0001
Prophylaxis 7 7 100% 51% improvement
RR 0.49 [0.26‑0.95]
p = 0.034
All studies 19 23 82.6% 33% improvement
RR 0.67 [0.53‑0.84]
p = 0.0006
Table 1. Results by treatment stage.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] death 1/141 13/377 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Asimi 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] ventilation 0/270 9/86 CT​2 Tau​2 = 2.68, I​2 = 72.0%, p = 0.23 Early treatment 74% 0.26 [0.03-2.33] 6/469 25/513 74% improvement Carlucci 38% 0.62 [0.46-0.84] death/HPC 54/411 119/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] death 31/58 61/94 Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] death 73/196 21/46 Frontera (PSM) 37% 0.63 [0.44-0.91] death 121/1,006 424/2,467 CT​2 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 CT​2 Patel (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.15-4.18] death 2/15 3/18 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] death 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] death 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] death 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] death 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] death 10/60 4/58 Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] ventilation 1/14 1/16 CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 60.8%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 32% 0.68 [0.56-0.82] 599/4,084 967/6,460 32% improvement Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 7% 0.93 [0.59-1.44] cases 21/750 425/14,477 Abdulateef 13% 0.87 [0.38-1.97] hosp. 7/111 23/317 Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] symp. case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Israel 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.93] hosp. 0/10 6,953/20,849 CT​2 Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] progression 33 (n) 477 (n) Gordon 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.87] death 0/104 1/96 Tau​2 = 0.47, I​2 = 88.4%, p = 0.034 Prophylaxis 51% 0.49 [0.26-0.95] 61/1,642 7,466/36,835 51% improvement All studies 33% 0.67 [0.53-0.84] 666/6,195 8,458/43,808 33% improvement 23 zinc COVID-19 studies c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.16, I​2 = 84.9%, p = 0.0006 Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendix 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 3. Random effects meta-analysis for all studies with pooled effects. This plot shows pooled effects, discussion can be found in the heterogeneity section, and results for specific outcomes can be found in the individual outcome analyses. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. For details of effect extraction see the appendix.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] 1/141 13/377 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.13 Early treatment 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] 1/141 13/377 79% improvement Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] 31/58 61/94 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] 73/196 21/46 Frontera (PSM) 37% 0.63 [0.44-0.91] 121/1,006 424/2,467 CT​1 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] 5/96 5/95 Patel (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.15-4.18] 2/15 3/18 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] 10/60 4/58 Tau​2 = 0.07, I​2 = 70.4%, p = 0.0011 Late treatment 31% 0.69 [0.55-0.86] 542/3,649 844/5,913 31% improvement Gordon 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.87] 0/104 1/96 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.5 Prophylaxis 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.87] 0/104 1/96 68% improvement All studies 32% 0.68 [0.55-0.84] 543/3,894 858/6,386 32% improvement 12 zinc COVID-19 mortality results c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.07, I​2 = 65.4%, p = 0.0005 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 4. Random effects meta-analysis for mortality results.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Asimi 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] 0/270 9/86 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.012 Early treatment 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.44] 0/270 9/86 97% improvement Carlucci 18% 0.82 [0.54-1.25] 29/411 62/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 34% 0.66 [0.19-2.26] 4/96 6/95 Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] 1/14 1/16 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.29 Late treatment 19% 0.81 [0.54-1.20] 34/521 69/632 19% improvement All studies 43% 0.57 [0.22-1.50] 34/791 78/718 43% improvement 4 zinc COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.43, I​2 = 47.3%, p = 0.26 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 5. Random effects meta-analysis for ventilation.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Carlucci 23% 0.77 [0.53-1.10] 38/411 82/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Darban (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.84-1.06] 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​1 Al Sulaiman (PSM) -25% 1.25 [0.84-1.87] 82 (n) 82 (n) Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] 1/14 1/16 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 5.9%, p = 0.38 Late treatment 6% 0.94 [0.83-1.07] 39/517 83/629 6% improvement All studies 6% 0.94 [0.83-1.07] 39/517 83/629 6% improvement 4 zinc COVID-19 ICU results c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 5.9%, p = 0.38 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 6. Random effects meta-analysis for ICU admission.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 82% 0.18 [0.07-0.54] hosp. 4/141 58/377 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Asimi 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.16] hosp. 0/270 24/86 CT​1 Tau​2 = 2.85, I​2 = 82.7%, p = 0.13 Early treatment 81% 0.19 [0.02-1.62] 9/469 85/513 81% improvement Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.86-1.08] hosp. time 96 (n) 95 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Al Sulaiman (PSM) -6% 1.06 [0.85-1.33] hosp. time 82 (n) 82 (n) Kaplan (RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.08-16.6] hosp. 1/14 1/16 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.78 Late treatment 2% 0.98 [0.89-1.09] 1/192 1/193 2% improvement Abdulateef 13% 0.87 [0.38-1.97] hosp. 7/111 23/317 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Israel 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.93] hosp. 0/10 6,953/20,849 CT​1 Bagheri 41% 0.59 [0.14-1.61] hosp. 4/33 167/477 Tau​2 = 5.94, I​2 = 94.5%, p = 0.067 Prophylaxis 93% 0.07 [0.00-1.22] 11/154 7,143/21,643 93% improvement All studies 51% 0.49 [0.28-0.85] 21/815 7,229/22,349 51% improvement 9 zinc COVID-19 hospitalization results c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.37, I​2 = 87.4%, p = 0.011 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 7. Random effects meta-analysis for hospitalization.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] 2/10 3/10 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.62 Late treatment 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] 2/10 3/10 33% improvement Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] 33 (n) 477 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.41 Prophylaxis 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] 0/33 0/477 60% improvement All studies 44% 0.56 [0.16-1.97] 2/43 3/487 44% improvement 2 zinc COVID-19 progression results c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.37 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 8. Random effects meta-analysis for progression.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Thomas (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.67-1.16] recov. time 58 (n) 50 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.38 Early treatment 12% 0.88 [0.67-1.16] 0/58 0/50 12% improvement Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.55-1.62] no recov. 20/96 21/95 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.84 Late treatment 6% 0.94 [0.55-1.62] 20/96 21/95 6% improvement All studies 11% 0.89 [0.70-1.14] 20/154 21/145 11% improvement 2 zinc COVID-19 recovery results c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.38 Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 9. Random effects meta-analysis for recovery.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 7% 0.93 [0.59-1.44] cases 21/750 425/14,477 Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] symp. case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Gordon 85% 0.15 [0.02-0.58] symp. case 2/104 9/96 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 81.8%, p = 0.13 Prophylaxis 30% 0.70 [0.44-1.11] 56/1,488 498/15,192 30% improvement All studies 30% 0.70 [0.44-1.11] 56/1,488 498/15,192 30% improvement 4 zinc COVID-19 case results c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 81.8%, p = 0.13 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 10. Random effects meta-analysis for cases.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Yasui 92% 0.07 [0.01-0.54] ventilation 1/20 6/9 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Jothimani 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.76] death 0/20 5/27 Vogel-González 77% 0.23 [0.10-0.51] death 9/191 12/58 Tomasa-Irriguible 49% 0.51 [0.19-1.02] ventilation 7/31 49/89 Gonçalves 82% 0.18 [0.08-0.36] severe case 7/55 145/214 Fromonot 89% 0.11 [0.02-0.48] hosp. 6/110 7/42 Laing 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.74] death 3/49 7/24 All studies 79% 0.21 [0.13-0.35] 33/476 231/463 79% improvement 7 zinc COVID-19 sufficiency studies c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 36.2%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendix Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 11. Random effects meta-analysis for sufficiency studies. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported, see the appendix for details.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Derwand 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] death 1/141 13/377 CT​2 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Tau​2 = 1.11, I​2 = 58.6%, p = 0.64 Early treatment 37% 0.63 [0.10-4.14] 6/199 16/427 37% improvement Carlucci 38% 0.62 [0.46-0.84] death/HPC 54/411 119/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] death 31/58 61/94 Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] death 73/196 21/46 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 CT​2 Patel (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.15-4.18] death 2/15 3/18 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] death 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] death 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] death 23/82 32/82 Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] death 10/60 4/58 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 60.2%, p = 0.01 Late treatment 25% 0.75 [0.60-0.93] 477/2,578 542/2,776 25% improvement Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 7% 0.93 [0.59-1.44] cases 21/750 425/14,477 Abdulateef 13% 0.87 [0.38-1.97] hosp. 7/111 23/317 Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] symp. case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Israel 100% 0.00 [0.00-0.93] hosp. 0/10 6,953/20,849 CT​2 Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] progression 33 (n) 477 (n) Gordon 68% 0.32 [0.01-7.87] death 0/104 1/96 Tau​2 = 0.47, I​2 = 88.4%, p = 0.034 Prophylaxis 51% 0.49 [0.26-0.95] 61/1,642 7,466/36,835 51% improvement All studies 28% 0.72 [0.56-0.93] 544/4,419 8,024/40,038 28% improvement 19 zinc COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19zinc.com Jan 18, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.16, I​2 = 84.1%, p = 0.011 Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendix 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors zinc Favors control
Figure 12. Random effects meta-analysis for peer reviewed studies. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported, see the appendix for details.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Thomas (RCT) -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] hosp. 5/58 3/50 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.62 Early treatment -44% 1.44 [0.36-5.71] 5/58 3/50 -44% improvement Carlucci 38% 0.62 [0.46-0.84] death/HPC 54/411 119/521 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Krishnan 18% 0.82 [0.62-1.09] death 31/58 61/94 Yao 34% 0.66 [0.41-1.07] death 73/196 21/46 Abd-Elsalam (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.30-3.31] death 5/96 5/95 Patel (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.15-4.18] death 2/15 3/18 Mulhem 46% 0.54 [0.43-0.68] death 256/1,596 260/1,623 Gadhiya -41% 1.41 [0.69-2.57] death 21/54 34/229 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 36% 0.64 [0.37-1.10] death 23/82 32/82 Elavarasi 65% 0.35 [0.24-0.56] death 486 (n) 1,201 (n) Assiri -81% 1.81 [0.41-6.97] death 10/60 4/58 Tau​2 = 0.08, I​2 = 70.4%, p = 0.0031 Late treatment 30% 0.70 [0.55-0.88] 475/3,054 539/3,967 30% improvement Louca 1% 0.99 [0.93-1.06] cases Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 7% 0.93 [0.59-1.44] cases 21/750 425/14,477 Abdulateef 13% 0.87 [0.38-1.97] hosp. 7/111 23/317 Seet (CLUS. RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.34-0.75] symp. case 33/634 64/619 OT​1 Bagheri 60% 0.40 [0.04-3.53] progression 33 (n) 477 (n) Gordon