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Aspirin Molnupiravir
Bamlanivimab Nigella Sativa
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Zinc study #20 of 37   All Outcomes
4/8 Late treatment study
Gadhiya et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042549 (Peer Reviewed)
Clinical characteristics of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and the impact on mortality: a single-network, retrospective cohort study from Pennsylvania state
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Retrospective 283 patients in the USA showing higher mortality with all treatments (not statistically significant). Confounding by indication is likely. In the supplementary appendix, authors note that the treatments were usually given for patients that required oxygen therapy. Oxygen therapy and ICU admission (possibly, the paper includes ICU admission for model 2 in some places but not others) were the only variables indicating severity used in adjustments.
Gadhiya et al., 4/8/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
risk of death, 40.9% higher, RR 1.41, p = 0.33, treatment 21 of 54 (38.9%), control 34 of 229 (14.8%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
All 37 studies   All Outcomes
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